Q. How do I make a bibliographic reference to an e-book?


The format of the e-book determines how the pages are shown. In PDF format the page numbering is the same as in the corresponding printed book. In the EPUB and HTML formats the page numbers may be lacking or different in comparison to the printed book because the pages scale according to the size of the screen.

In in-text citations usually the author and the publishing year or the update year are placed after the piece of information that is cited. Page numbers are recommended only if they are explicit.

E-book references in the bibliography section are formulated usually in the same way as with the printed book: write down the author, the book title, the publisher and the publishing year. Add also the URL of the e-book and the day you have used the book (e.g. viewed March 3, 2014).  If you can find a permanent identifier for the book (e.g. DOI, Handle, URN) no URL is needed. There are specific programs which help in making bibliographies, e.g. RefWorks. RefWorks contains hundreds of citation styles.

Faculties may prefer a certain reference style. Ask the teachers in your subject field.

For further information consult: http://libguides.aalto.fi/citation_guide



  • Last Updated 03 Oct, 2018
  • Views 41
  • Answered By Saija Tapio

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